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Any pharmaceutical drug product made in, extracted from, or semi synthesized from biological sources is known as a biopharmaceutical, sometimes known as a biologic(al) medical product, or biologic. Specialty medications are high-cost drugs that are frequently biologics, according to a new taxonomy of pharmaceuticals.

Pharmaceutical formulation is the process of combining different chemical ingredients, including the active medicine, to create a finished therapeutic product in pharmaceutics. The term formulation is frequently used in conjunction with the term dosage form.
Pharmacogenomics is the study of how genes impact how an individual reacts to medications. This area integrates the study of genes and their roles with the science of pharmaceuticals to create effective, secure medications that may be provided depending on a person's genetic profile.
The research and practises involved in detecting, assessing, comprehending, and preventing adverse effects or other drug-related issues. Throughout the lifecycle of a product, from development to post-market, pharmaceutical and biotechnology enterprises must not only monitor, but also assess and manage drug risk. As a result, pharmacovigilance focuses significantly on adverse drug reactions (ADR), which are defined as any unpleasant and undesired response to a medicine, including lack of efficacy.
Pharmaceutical nanoparticles are sub nanoscale structures that contain drug or bioactive compounds and are made up of tens or hundreds of atoms or molecules in crystalline, amorphous, spherical, or needle-shaped morphologies. Drugs can also be protected against deterioration using nanotechnology-based delivery methods.
Pharmaceutical manufacture refers to the process of synthesising pharmaceutical medications on a large scale in the pharmaceutical industry. A succession of unit operations, including as milling, granulation, coating, tablet pressing, and others, can be broken down into the drug production process.

The design (drug design) and synthesis of physiologically active compounds is the focus of pharmaceutical (medicinal) chemistry. The goal is to obtain new chemical molecules that can be used to find new pharmaceuticals or to improve existing drug structures, hence expanding the chemical drug portfolio.
Biological therapy is a sort of cancer treatment that employs the body's immune system to kill cancer cells. Biological therapy for cancer is utilised in the treatment of many different types of cancer to stop or delay tumour development and spread. Biological cancer therapy has less harmful side effects than other cancer treatments.

Radiopharmaceuticals are unique medicinal formulations containing radioisotopes that are utilised for diagnosis and/or therapy in major therapeutic areas. National and/or regional authorities must licence the facilities and processes for the manufacturing, use, and storage of radiopharmaceuticals.


Pharmaceutical firms are responding to the quick difficulties posed by supply chain disruptions and the need to adapt business procedures in these unprecedented times. If the present COVID-19 pandemic continues for a long time, it may have an influence on the availability of active materials and chemicals (mostly from China), as well as pharmaceutical import and export.
Pharmaceutical microbiology is a branch of microbiology concerned with the use of microbes in the production of pharmaceuticals and the prevention of contamination.

Pharmaceutical biotechnology is a relatively new and rapidly growing discipline in which biotechnology principles are applied to drug development. Bioformulations, such as antibodies, nucleic acid products, and vaccinations, make up the bulk of therapeutic medications on the market today.

Pharmaceutical study and quality assurance is a vast topic that encompasses qualitative and quantitative analysis of medications, recipients, and contaminants, among other things, in order to meet regulatory criteria. It teaches not only the fundamental concepts of the subject, but also advanced issues.
Approaches, formulations, manufacturing procedures, storage systems, and technologies used to convey a pharmaceutical ingredient to its target site in order to accomplish a desired therapeutic effect are referred to as drug delivery.

Drug delivery is a notion that is closely linked to dosage type and method of administration, with the latter being included in some definitions. While the terms route of administration and drug delivery are frequently used interchangeably, they are two distinct ideas. Medication delivery involves the engineering of delivery systems and can include multiple dose forms and devices used to deliver a drug through the same route, whereas route of administration refers to the path a drug takes to enter the body. Oral, parenteral (injected), sublingual, topical, transdermal, inhaled, rectal, and vaginal are common methods of administration; however, drug delivery is not restricted to these routes, and there may be multiple ways to give drugs through each route.

Researchers frequently discover novel pharmaceuticals by gaining fresh insights into a disease process that allow them to develop a product that can stop or reverse the disease's symptoms. Many molecular compound tests have been carried out in order to discover potential therapeutic effects for a variety of diseases.
Doctors are attempting to understand more about HIV/AIDS-related cancer, including how to prevent it, treat it effectively, and care for patients who have been diagnosed with these diseases. Clinical trials may provide new alternatives for patients in the following areas of research. 
Surgery is a field that has a significant impact on human health. As a result, it is both ethical and scientific to base surgical practise on the best available trial-based data. Clinical research has always lagged behind other areas in clinical medicine in terms of quality and quantity.
  1. Pilot studies and feasibility studies
  2. Prevention trials
  3. Screening and Treatment trials
  4. Multi-arm multi-stage (MAMS) trials
  5. Cohort studies
  6. Case control studies
  7. Cross sectional studies

A case report is a descriptive account of a patient's symptoms, signs, diagnosis, medication, and follow-up. Case reports typically describe an unique or unexpected occurrence, and as a result, they remain one of the bedrock of medical advancement, generating a slew of new medical ideas.

An abstract, an introduction with a research study, a summary of the case report, a discussion that includes a full explanation of the literature review, a quick summary of the case, and a conclusion should all be included in case reports.
Epidemiology is the study of the "distribution and determinants" of diseases or disorders within groups of individuals, as well as the development of knowledge on how to avoid and control them. It is the backbone of public health, informing policy decisions and evidence-based medicine by identifying disease risk factors and preventive medicine goals. The goal of public health intervention is to enhance people's health and quality of life by preventing and treating sickness as well as other physical and mental illnesses.
Gene and stem cell therapies have the potential to treat a wide range of inherited and acquired disorders in humans. Gene therapy has made great progress thanks to the identification of genes involved in human disease and the development of innovative vectors and technologies for delivering therapeutic genes to various tissues in vivo. The isolation of stem cells from tissues previously thought to have minimal regeneration potential, as well as the evidence of stem cell plasticity and the synthesis of human embryonic stem cells, show that human stem cell therapy is a viable option.
Cardiovascular pharmacology is concerned with how medications affect the heart and vascular system as well as the basic workings of cardiovascular cells. Arrhythmias, heart failure, coronary artery disease, arterial hypertension, and hyperlipidemia are among conditions that can be treated with cardiovascular medications. Additionally, they contain antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications, which are crucial for preventing cardiogenic embolism.

Many medications have different pharmacokinetics in children compared to adults. Due to growth and development, the pharmacokinetic processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion alter. Because there aren't many pharmacokinetic studies, determining the right doses for kids might be challenging. Adult study results cannot always be accurately translated to children's doses.