Virtual Conference

Ana Sotirovska Ivkovska

Ss Cyril and Methodius University, North Macedonia

Title: Immunological defense mechanisms of the dental pulp to carious stimuli


The relation between the defensive reactions of the pulp and he depth of the carious lesions are examined, to understand how and which inflammatory and immunocompetent cells infiltrate the pulp in association with the development of carious lesion in order to elucidate the pathogenesis of dental caries, especially from viewpoint of conservative treatment of pulp disease. In this study we have analyzed 150 teeth with different stages of progression of the carious lesion. The condition of the pulp was classified into five groups according to the progression of the carious lesions from stages S0 (non-carious teeth) to S4 (exposed pulp). Cells were identified with indirect immunoperoxidase technique using monoclonal antibodies reactive to pan-T lymphocytes, helper (CD4), suppressor (CD8) lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes (CD20), macrophages (CD68) and dendritic cells (HLA-DR). A few scattered positive T lymphocytes, dendritic cells and macrophages were observed in unaffected pulp with suppressor (CD8) lymphocytes being predominant. In S1 and S2 the number of the analyzed cells was markedly increased and a focal accumulation of mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate can be detected, with the ratio of CD4/CD8 0.22 and 0.23, respectively. The ratio of B/T lymphocytes was 0.21 and 0.24.  Higher numbers of T, CD4, CD8, CD68, HLA-DR and B-lymphocytes were observed in S3 with a CD4/CD8 ratio of 0.84 and B/T lymphocytes ratio was 0.57. In the group with exposed pulp a high ratio of CD4/CD8 and B/T lymphocytes was observed (1.22 and 1.81), showing signs of irreversible pulp inflammation. This study suggests that immune mechanisms play important role in pulpal infection resistance. Results obtained in this study suggest about the regulatory functions of helper (CD4) and suppressor (CD8) lymphocytes as well as the interaction of T and B lymphocytes and their products in the pathogenesis of pulpal disease.


Ana Sotirovska Ivkovska has completed her PhD at the age of 39 years from Faculty of Dental Medicine, Macedonia. She is the professor of University "Ss Cyril and Methodius", Faculty of Dental Medicine, Republic of Macedonia. Current Head of the Masters Studies at the Faculty of Dental Medicine. He is an active member of several domestic and foreign associations: Association of Pediatric dentists of Republic of Macedonia, ORCA, FDI, IADR, IAPD. She gained her research experience at the Department of Dental Materials at the Dental Faculty in Amsterdam (ACTA). She participated in several national and international symposia and conferences actively with presentations and plenary lectures she has over 200 publications that have been cited over 90 times, and her publication H-index is 6 and has been serving as an editorial board member of reputed Journals.